【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

点蓝色字关注“国际城市发展智库”

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

“武夷山脉是中国东南部最负盛名的生物保护区,也是许多古代孑遗植物的避难所,其中许多生物为中国所特有。九曲溪两岸峡谷秀美,寺院庙宇众多,但其中也有不少早已成为废墟。该地区为唐宋理学的发展和传播提供了良好的地理环境。自11世纪以来,理教对中国东部地区的文化产生了相当深刻的影响。公元1世纪时,汉朝统治者在城村附近建立了一处较大的行政首府,厚重坚实的围墙环绕四周,极具考古价值。”这是1999年武夷山被列入世界自然与文化遗产名录时,世界遗产委员会分别对其作出的评价。

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

武夷山位于中国东南部福建省西北的武夷山市南郊,总面积近一千平方公里。武夷山的自然风光独树一帜,以“丹霞地貌”著称于世。九曲溪沿岸的奇峰与峭壁,倒映在清澈的河水中,构成一幅精美绝伦的山水景观。在为数不多的世界自然与文化双遗产当中,武夷山成功入选。对于自然遗产来说,武夷山丹山碧水、峰峦叠嶂,四季不同天,有着百转千回的美。武夷山保存了世界同纬度带最好的中亚热带原生性森林生态系统,拥有大量完整无损多种多样的林带,是中国亚热带森林和中国南部雨林最大和最具代表性的例证。对于文化遗产而言,武夷山保存着许多考古遗址,包括4000多年前的古闽越人遗迹、建于公元前1世纪的汉城遗址、大量的寺庙和与公元11世纪产生的朱子理学相关的书院遗址等。武夷山将中国传统文化中的佛、道、儒存于一炉,令朱子理学与茶文化并存发展壮大,至今影响深远。

天游峰

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

武夷山不像其他名峰一样有着高不可攀的高度,其中作为代表的天游峰海拨408米,相对高度仅215米。但丹霞山峰绝壁垂直,高耸入云,如遨游天宫琼阁,确有“天游”之妙。从峰脚仰视可见一线飞瀑——雪花泉从峰顶飞流直下,有着涓涓秀丽的清瘦之美。登顶天游山巅俯瞰武夷群峰,有了云雾的遮掩,群峰悬浮,一直逶迤至天尽头,如迷宫般相连又相望,绵绵不绝又茕茕孑立。武夷山有一份山清水秀间质朴的安宁之色,正是这份不张扬又不夸张的清丽,令山与水融合一体,山伴着水而生,水依着山而流,一齐出现又一齐消失。蜿蜒多姿的九曲溪缓缓流过,并在山脚掉了个头,逶迤而去。当年,徐霞客曾到此云游,并发出:“不临溪而能尽九溪之胜,此峰固应第一也”,后人也称天游为第一山。

九曲溪

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

九曲溪是山与水完美结合的典范。每年雨季,两岸丹霞红岩披上了一层青湿之色,在葱茏草木点缀下,更显青翠。雨珠敲击着溪面,泛起蒙蒙雾气,氤氲在山水间聚了又散,没有具像却更显迷幻之美。溪水在雨中盈盈满满,有如美玉,圆润光洁,碧色倾城;亦如铜镜,美人初妆,倒影卓卓。船夫撑起一叶竹排,青山如影,从眼旁缓缓溜走,不徐不急。朱红的摩崖石刻不经意间出现在垂直绝壁上,有的孤芳自赏,有的连绵成片。溯游从之,玉女峰宛在水中央,秀丽亭亭又巍峨猗猗;大王峰上丰下瘦的身型在云间展露,它与玉女的传说由来已久,只是生生世世不能相见,虽距咫尺却已天涯。

大红袍

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

武夷山之所以能入选世界文化遗产,其中很重要的部分便是由“大红袍”引出的茶文化。大红袍被誉为“茶中之王”,是武夷岩茶中的珍品和代表。大红袍属于乌龙茶类,与绿茶、红茶制作工艺一脉相承并不断创新和发展,形成了自己独创的工艺和高超的技能。关于大红袍的故事有许多演绎,简单一句就是有个穷秀才时曾喝过此茶以解腹胀,后飞黄腾达成了状元,衣锦还乡时将此茶上贡,得到御赐红袍,并将红袍披于茶树上,从此“大红袍”成了茶叶中极珍品,只得听闻,不可亲尝。

九龙窠的山峰逶迤起伏,如九条龙相连。武夷山大红袍的母本树就生长在九龙窠内一座陡峭的岩壁上。岩壁上的“大红袍”石刻为1927年天心寺和尚所刻,石刻旁边一共六棵古老的灌木茶树,终年在半山的峭峰深壑间兀自生长,不被打扰,鲜有日照,取天地之精,汲岩壁之气,生得清丽瘦秀,却蕴含清洌芳香。历朝历代,这里都是有专人驻步把守的禁区,只在春季开采成为贡茶,而产量也不过斤。于是,仅20克的母本大红袍,便可卖达二十万元以上,并屡创新高,且这还是数年前的价格了。

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

【全文翻译】


“Mount Wuyi is the most outstanding area for biodiversity conservation in south-east China and a refuge for a large number of ancient, relict species, many of them endemic to China. The serene beauty of the dramatic gorges of the Nine Bend River, with its numerous temples and monasteries, many now in ruins, provided the setting for the development and spread of Neo-Confucianism, which has been influential in the cultures of East Asia since the 11th century. In the 1st century B.C. a large administrative capital was built at nearby Chengcun by the Han dynasty rulers. Its massive walls enclose an archaeological site of great significance.”It is the assessment of the World Heritage Committee on Mount Wuyi when it was included in the list of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1999.

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

Located at the south suburbs of Wuyishan City in the northwest of the southeast province Fujian of China, Mount Wuyi covers a total area of about 1,000 square kilometers. With its unique natural scenery, the mountain is famous for its “Danxia landform”. The towering peaks and cliffs along the Nine Bend River reflected in the clear water constitute a magnificent mountain and water landscape. Mount Wuyi is among the small number of sites entering the lists of both World Cultural Heritage and the World Natural Heritage. As the World Natural Heritage, its red cliffs, clear water, mountain peaks, different climates in four seasons, and chopping and changing scene present its superb beauty. Mount Wuyi preserves the best mid-subtropical original forest ecosystem at the same latitude in the world. With a great diversity of intact forest belts, it is the largest and most representative example of the Chinese Subtropical Forest and the South Chinese Rainforest. For the cultural heritages, Mount Wuyi preserves many archeological sites, including the relics of ancient Minyue people before 4,000 years, the ruins of Han City in the 1st century BC, a large number of temples, and the sites of academies as the cradle of Neo-Confucianism developed since the 11th century AD. Incorporating Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism of traditional Chinese culture, Mount Wuyi has promoted the co-existence, development, and growth of Neo-Confucianism and tea culture and produced a lasting influence.

Tianyou Peak

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

Mount Wuyi is different from other famous mountains which are of lofty height. The representative Tianyou Peak is 408 meters above the sea level and the relative height is only 215 meters. Nevertheless, the vertical cliffs of the peak in Danxia landform tower into the sky. The journey to the peak is like traveling in the heavenly palace, providing the wonderful experience of “heavenly tour”. Looking up from the foot of the peak, there is a torrent of waterfall---the Snowflake Spring cascades down the peak, showing the charm of the narrow and rolling spring. Overlooking the peaks of Mount Wuyi from the top of the Tianyou Peak, you will find the peaks in mist and clouds stretch to the end of the skyline. It looks like a giant maze of connecting but separatingpeaks perching alone on the sea of clouds. With a sense of calm peacefulness in the picturesque scenery, Mount Wuyi is neither showy nor exaggerating. Mountains and water are perfectly combined here. Mountains rise from the water and water follows beside the mountains. They show and disappear together. The zigzagging Nine Bend River flows slowly through the mountains and turns to another direction right at the foot of the mountain. Xu Xiake had traveled here and marveled that “Though it is not adjacent to the river, it provides the best view of the Nine Bend River. It should be the first peak of the Mount Wuyi.” Later, the Tianyou Peak is called the first peak of the Mount Wuyi.

Nine Bend River

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

Nine Bend River is a typical example of the perfect combination of mountains and water. In the rainy season every year, the red cliffs of the Danxia landform along the river are covered with a layer of green moss. It is even greener in the background of verdant trees and grasses. When the raindrops fall onto the surface of the water, it would create foggy mist which gathers and spreads between the mountains and water. Without concrete images, the mist is subtle and fantastic. The river is full of water in the rain, like a mellow and smooth jade with gorgeous green sometimes, and a bronze mirror reflecting thewonderful scenery sometimes. On a bamboo raft stands a boatman. The green mountains slide back slowly beside his eyes unhurriedly. Inadvertently, red inscriptions appear on the vertical cliffs. Some are indulging in self-admiration, while others are in groups connecting to each other. To the upstream of the river, Yunu Peak stands as if in the center of water, elegant but majestic; the Dawang Peak which is plump in the upper part and slim in the lower part shows its figure in the clouds. The legend between the Dawang Peak and Yunu Peak has a long history, yet they are so near and yet so far and could never be together for generations.

Da Hong Pao

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

An important factor for the inclusion of Mount Wuyi in the World Cultural Heritage is the tea culture represented by “Da Hong Pao”. Reputed as “king of tea”, Da Hong Pao is the treasure and representation of the Wuyi Rock Tea. Da Hong Pao belongs to oolong tea. Derived from the same origin to green tea and black tea in production technology and after constant innovation and development, Da Hong Pao has formed its unique production process of superb technique. There are many stories related to Da Hong Pao. To cut a long story short, a poor scholar had cured abdominal distension by drinking this kind of tea. Later, he made a rapid advance in his study and became the number one scholar of the country. When he returned to his hometown in full glory, he paid the tea as a tribute to the emperor and the emperor bestowed him a red robe, reading Hong Pao in Chinese. He covered the red robe on the tea tree. Since then, “Da Hong Pao” has become the most precious tea which could only be heard but hardly be tasted.

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)

There are waving peaks in the Nine-Dragon Nest area, like nine connecting dragons. The mother plants of Da Hong Pao of Mount Wuyi grow on a steep cliff in the Nine-Dragon Nest area. The inscriptions reading “Da Hong Pao” was carved by the monks of Tianxin Temple in 1927. Six ancient Da Hong Pao bush tea trees stand beside the inscriptions. Growing on the halfway up the steep cliff all year round, these trees have seldom been disturbed and shined by the sunlight. Absorbing the essence of the heaven and earth and the nimbus over the cliff, they are slim and elegant and the leaves are sweet-scented and fragrant. The area has been guarded by specifically appointed personnel in different dynasties through the history and the tea has been only picked in spring to pay tribute to the emperor. The tea produced for each year is less than a half kilogram. Therefore, 20 grams of Da Hong Pao of the mother plants could be sold as much as 200,000 yuan. It was the price for several years ago and it is still on the rise.

【国内文旅卷】世界自然与文化遗产之武夷山(中英双语)


2021-03-31 原文

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