【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

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【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

“古城丽江把经济和战略重地与崎岖的地势巧妙地融合在一起,真实、完美地保存和再现了古朴的岁月。古城的建筑历经无数朝代的洗礼,饱经沧桑,它融会了各个民族的文化特色而声名远扬。丽江还拥古老的供水系统,这一系统纵横交错、精巧独特,至今仍在有效地发挥着作用。”这是1997年联合国教科文组织将丽江古城列入世界文化遗产时对其作出的评价。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

坐落在云南省丽江纳西族自治县的丽江古城,海拔达2400多米,历史悠久且古朴自然,包括大研、束和和白沙等保存完好的古镇,其中的大研镇是丽江古城最杰出的代表。大研始建于宋末元初,位于丽江坝中部,面积3.8平方公里,人口约2.5万人,绝大部分为纳西族,至今仍有许多从事着传统的手工和商业活动。因为丽江的世袭统治土司姓木,如若筑城墙将会形成一个“困”字,所以大研镇成了一座没有城墙的古城。古城布局错落有致、因地制宜,“城依水存、水随城在”、“家家泉水、户户垂柳”,兼具山城与水乡的风貌。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

丽江古城的民居多有着百年以上的历史,以汉、白、彝、藏等各民族特点相互融合,形成“三坊一照壁、四合五天井”的纳西布局,是中国民居不可多得的重要遗产。每个古城的中心位置都有着一座方形的街市,四周围以整齐商铺,名为“四方街”,这是古城各路交通的交会点。从这里延伸出去的街巷均由五花石板铺地,光洁又富有历史感。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

白沙壁画主要分布在白沙镇的宗教建筑群内,这里也是木氏土司家族的发祥地。白沙壁画作为东巴文化的传统精华,将宗教文化与民族艺术相融合,色彩缤纷,笔法洗炼,线条均匀,题材广泛有着独树一帜的特点。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

纳西古乐源于汉族的洞经音乐和皇经音乐,不仅单指纳西族古乐,还融合了传承自唐宋、成熟于明代的中国古典音乐,更有传自西域、波斯的胡乐。整个乐曲分为“神州”和“华通”两个大调,并分为五十多个小调,在典雅的丝竹乐风中,增添了粗犷雄浑的纳西民族色彩,被誉为“活的音乐博物馆”。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

【全文翻译】

As UNESCO describes the town when designating it as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site in 1997, “The Old Town of Lijiang, which is perfectly adapted to the uneven topography of this key commercial and strategic site, has retained a historic townscape of high quality and authenticity. Its architecture is noteworthy for the blending of elements from several cultures that have come together over many centuries. Lijiang also possesses an ancient water-supply system of great complexity and ingenuity that still functions effectively today.”

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

Located in the Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County, Yunnan province, with an elevation of more than 2,400 meters, the Old Town of Lijiang, boasting a long history, simple and natural style and well-preserved ancient architectures, consists of several old towns, such as Dayan, Shuhe and Baisha, among which Dayan is the best representative of Old Town of Lijiang. Built in the late Song Dynasty and the early Yuan Dynasty, Dayan is situated at the center of Lijiang Plain, covering an area of 3.8 km2. Its population is approximately 25 thousand in total, and the vast majority of its inhabitants are Naxi people, many of whom are still engaged in traditional handicraft and commercial activities. Dayan is an old town without walls, as the hereditary headmen of Lijiang surnamed Mu (Chinese character is “木”) considered it as ominous if the “木” is enclosed by “口” formed by walls, which means being stuck in difficulty or danger. The old town enjoys a well-arranged layout that perfectly adapted to the uneven topography, demonstrating a landscape incorporating features of mountains and streams, as it is described “a town entangled with waters” and “every house enjoys clear spring and weeping willows”.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

With a history of over a century, most dwellings in the Old Town of Lijiang incorporate elements from several cultures, such as Han, Bai, Yi and Tibetan, forming a Naxi layout of “quadrangle courtyard with three buildings and a screen wall on the four sides and five patios in the center”, an ingenious key legacy for Chinese folk residence architecture. In the center of each old town stands a square market surrounded by tidy shops. It is called “Square Market”, where all the other streets in the old town meet. Streets and lanes stretching from here are paved with colored slates, smooth and full of sense of history.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

Baisha Murals are kept and displayed in religious buildings in Baisha village, which is also the birthplace of the hereditary headmen, Mu’s family. As the essence of traditional Dongba culture, Baisha Murals blend religious culture with ethnic arts, demonstrating a style of its own featured by rich colors, concise brushwork, even lines and wide-ranging themes.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)

Deriving from Dongjing music and Huangjing music of Han people, Naxi ancient music not only includes the ancient music of Naxi nationality, but incorporates Chinese classic music that emerged in Tang and Song dynasties and became mature in Ming dynasty, as well as Hu music from Western Regions and Persia. With two majors (Shenzhou and Huatong) and over fifty minors, Naxi ancient music adds bold and vigorous national characteristics into the elegant string and bamboo flute music, therefore it is honored as a “living music museum”.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之丽江古城(中英双语)


2021-04-11 原文

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