【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

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【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

“紫禁城是中国五个多世纪以来的最高权力中心,它以园林景观和容纳了家具及工艺品的9000多个房间的庞大建筑,成为明清时代中国文明无价的历史见证。”这是1987年联合国教科文组织将明清故宫紫禁城列入世界文化遗产时对其作出的评价。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

故宫是明清两朝的皇宫。作为天子居住之所,它对应着中国古代星象学说中天帝居住的紫微垣,被视为世界的中心,所以故宫原称紫禁城。事实上,紫禁城正位于北京的中心位置。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

紫禁城始建于1406年,南北长961米,东西宽753米,平面呈矩形,面积约72万平方米,大小房间8728间;四周围以12米高的城墙与52米宽的护城河,四角各置角楼一座,形成闭合式的防卫设施;四面各开一门,分别为午门(南)、神武门(北)、东华门、西华门。紫禁城主要的建筑均以中轴线排列,两侧建筑大都以中轴线为中心东西对称,总体上可分为“前朝“与“后廷”两大部分。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

“前朝”是紫禁城最主要的建筑群,其中太和殿、中和殿与保和殿被称为前朝三大殿。而太和殿作为三大殿之主殿,更是整个紫禁城的皇权的象征。作为明清两代举行国家重大庆典的场所,太和殿装饰十分华美,俗称金銮殿,也是中国现存规格与等级最高的古建筑。中和殿是皇帝上大朝前做准备与休息之所,保和殿是皇帝进行科举殿试与接见外藩宾客的场所。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

“后廷”是皇帝与皇后及后宫嫔妃居住、生活、工作的地方,乾清宫、坤宁宫与交泰殿被称为后廷三宫。乾清宫是两代皇帝居住并处理政务之所,但从清雍正开始移居至西侧不远的养心殿。坤宁宫是皇后居位的正宫,而交泰殿是皇后举行各种典礼的场所。后廷三宫两侧为东六宫与西六宫,是嫔妃们居住的地方。在后廷以北、神武门以内,是宫廷园林——御花园。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

紫禁城是世界上现存规模最大、最完整的古代木结构建筑群。宫殿建筑上覆黄色琉璃瓦,屋身与宫墙施红色,充分反映出中国古代的封建礼制。自1421年明代第三位皇帝朱棣迁都入住,至1924年清朝的末代皇帝溥仪被逐迁,紫禁城在做为皇宫的500年时光里看尽了24位皇帝的政治风云变幻。此后,紫禁城这个名称渐渐被淡忘在时光里,而越来越多的人将它称作“故宫”。

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

【全文翻译】

"Seat of supreme power for over five centuries (1416-1911), the Forbidden City in Beijing, with its landscaped gardens and many buildings (whose nearly 10,000 rooms contain furniture and works of art), constitutes a priceless testimony to Chinese civilization during the Ming and Qing dynasties." was UNESCO's comment on the Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, when the element was listed as a world cultural heritage in 1987.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

As the royal residence of emperors during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Imperial Palace is the earthly counterpart of the Ziwei Enclosure - the divine residence of the Celestial Emperor in accordance with traditional Chinese astrology. This palace was considered the center of the world and was called the Forbidden City, which is actually located just in the center of Beijing.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

The Forbidden City was constructed in 1406 and has a rectangular area of approximately720,000 square meters; measuring a length of 961 meters from north to south and a width of 753 meters from west to east. Consisting of 8,728 rooms of various sizes, this city is surrounded by 12-meter high wall and a 52-meter wide moat; watch towers were built at the four corners of the wall, which serves as the city’s defense facility. Gates were built on the four sides of the wall, namely, the Meridian Gate (south wall), the Gate of Divine Might (north wall), the East Glorious Gate, and the West Glorious Gate. The main buildings are positioned on the central north–south axis; the rest of the structures were arranged in a symmetrical pattern and placed on the east and west side of the central axis - generally forming two parts: the Outer Court and the Inner Court.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

The main structures of the Forbidden City are located in the “Outer Court", which include the Hall of Supreme Harmony, the Hall of Central Harmony, and the Hall of Preserving Harmony; these are the three major halls of the Outer Court. The Hall of Supreme Harmony is the main hall among the three and is the symbol of imperial power. This primary hall was decorated magnificently and was often a venue for major national celebrations during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The Forbidden City, also called the Hall of Golden Chimes, represents the highest level of the ancient structures in standard and grade in China. The Hall of Central Harmony was used by the Emperor to prepare and have a rest before holding court. The Hall of Preserving Harmony was the site for the final stage of the Imperial Examination and meeting guests from vassal states.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

The “Inner Court” was where the Emperor, Empress and concubines lived and worked. The Palace of Heavenly Purity, the Palace of Earthly Tranquility, and the Hall of Union are the three halls of the Inner Court. The Palace of Heavenly Court was used as a place for Emperors, during the Ming and Qing dynasties, to live and work. However, during the reign of Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing dynasty, the Emperor’s living quarters was transferred to the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation near the west side of the Palace of Heavenly. The Palace of Earthly Tranquility was the residence of the Empress; and the Hall of Union was a place for the Empress to hold different ceremonies. The six palaces in the west side and the other six palaces in the east side of the three halls are the residences of the concubines. The royal garden, also called, the Imperial Garden, is located between the Inner Court and the Gate of Divine Might.

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)

The Forbidden City has the largest and most intact ancient wooden structure architecture complex existing in the world. The golden tiles that cover the palace architecture and the red palace walls fully reflect the ancient feudal system in China. For 500 years, the Forbidden City witnessed the success and failures of the 24 emperors that ruled the Imperial Palace; from Zhu Di, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty who ruled in 1421, to Puyi, the last Emperor of the Qing Dynasty who was expelled from the palace in 1924. Since then, the name, Forbidden City has slowly been forgotten in time; and more and more people now call this place, "the Imperial Palace."

【国内文旅卷】世界文化遗产之紫禁城(中英双语)


2021-04-09 原文

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